Humans Are Microbial Beings

In the Bible, second chapter of Genesis verse seven, we are informed that God formed man “from the dust of the ground,” which may have a more literal interpretation than many of us think. Within this dust of the Earth is a host of microbes containing genetic material that influence human health and disease. Both inside and outside the human body, resides an enormous collection of microbes—bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. Throughout the centuries, humans have formed a vital and symbiotic relationship with these microbes that has shaped human biology and behavior.

Collectively called the microbiome or microbiota, these microbes in and on the human body and the genes they contain outnumber our own human cells, making us microbial beings. Research suggests that bacterial microbes alone outnumber human cells about 1.3 to 1, and this doesn’t even consider the fungi and viruses present in and on our body.

Healthy early-life developmental is contingent on the development of a diverse and healthy microbiota, which is influenced by mode of delivery (vaginal or C-section), your mother’s microbiota, gestational age, infant feeding method (breastfeeding or formula), and other genetic and environmental factors according to research. From birth, microbes populate an infant’s body with microbial diversity increasing rapidly during the first month of life. Interestingly, mother’s breast milk adapts to provide the right polysaccharides to feed an infant’s growing microbiota population.

The human microbiota continues to develop, adapt, and change throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. To maintain health, humans must maintain a broad diversity of organisms and provide an environment where friendly microbes can thrive and the overgrowth of harmful microbes is kept in check.

With so many microbes present in and on our body, they obviously play a critical role in human health. Indeed, these microbes are extremely important to an array of body functions including hormone production, metabolism, neurotransmitter production and brain communication, immune system activity, mood, and virtually all aspects of human health. It wouldn’t be an exaggeration to state that human health is reliant on continual exposure to, replenishment of, and connection with microbes.

Unfortunately, modern society has deliberately and inadvertently interfered with our relationship with microbes. The vast majority of the world’s population lives in cities and urban areas where most of our time is spent indoors leading to a significant decrease in our exposure to microbes—a major factor in rapidly declining microbiota diversity. Constant wearing of footwear limits our exposure to the microbiota in the soil that our ancestors enjoyed with bare feet and sandals. Widespread use of pesticides and herbicides compromises microbiome health by destroying massive swaths of friendly microbes. And the overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial cleaning products to cleanse every single surface alters the microbiome leading to dysregulation of key bodily functions and an increased risk of disease. We may be literally altering human health in the modern age by disrupting a centuries-old mutually beneficial relationship with our microbiota.

A renaissance and revival of our connection with these microbes is vital to human health. Here are seven tips to maintain a healthy and diverse microbiota.

  • Consume fermented foods and beverages. Consumed by humans for centuries, fermented foods and beverages employ an ancient food preservation technique whereby the food or beverage undergoes a controlled fermentation process. Bacteria or yeast breakdown carbs—sugars and starches—to ferment the food or beverage, thus altering its flavor and shelf-life. Common fermented foods and beverages include yogurt, kefir, cider, sourdough bread, sauerkraut, kombucha, kimchi, and miso. These foods are beneficial because they provide a variety of probiotics to encourage microbiome diversity.
  • Eat lots of fiber from vegetables, legumes, beans, and fruit. Just like you, bacterial microbes require nutrition to stay viable. One source of nutrition for probiotics is fiber. Fiber can be digested by certain bacteria in the gut, which stimulates their growth and favorably alters the microbiome according to research.
  • Reduce added sugar and unhealthy fats in your diet. This one is common sense for general health, but sugar and unhealthy fats (trans and saturated) also negatively impact your microbiome. Studies in animals show that high-fat or high-sugar consumption contributes to dysbiosis—imbalance in the gut microbial community that increases disease risk—and can increase brain inflammation and decrease brain function.
  • Manage stress. Psychological stress affects virtually all aspects of human health. Your emotional and cognitive centers of the brain are linked to intestinal functions through a connection called the gut-brain axis (GBA). The GBA serves as a two-way communication link between the central and enteric nervous systems. Simply put, the vagus nerve is like a telephone wire that connects the phone in the gut to the phone in the brain so the two organs can efficiently communicate. The breakdown of food by gut bacteria produces metabolites (short chain fatty acids) in the intestinal tract that are sensed by the vagus nerve—the longest and most complex of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves. In response to these intestinal metabolites, the vagus nerve delivers information to the brain. The vagus nerve is important for breathing, cardiovascular function, and inflammation control. Unfortunately, stress disrupts vagus nerve function, preventing it from performing these important tasks.
  • Walk barefoot in the dirt. Don’t forget your skin microbiota. Walking barefoot allows direct contact with the soil, which has a positive effect on your mind and body. As you slowly stroll along the soil or grass with bare feet you absorb some of the microbes in the ground. Even short-term direct contact with soil and plant materials can cause an immediate increase in beneficial microbes on your skin according to scientists. One study found that contact with microbes in the soil can make you feel happier. Researchers believe that soil microbes can influence immune cell activity and their release of cytokines that regulate our inflammatory response as well.
  • Reduce use of antimicrobial cleaners and only use antibiotics when absolutely necessary. This is pretty self-explanatory. Antimicrobial cleaners kill both beneficial and potentially pathogenic organisms and their overuse is suspected of contributing to antibiotic resistance. It isn’t necessary to excessively wipe every surface you may touch with an antimicrobial cleaner. In addition, several studies have demonstrated that antibiotics can result in dysbiosis, and this disruption of the gut microbiome contributes to numerous diseases, including diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, and autism.
  • Take probiotics supplements. To maintain a healthy and diverse microbiome, it is helpful to take probiotic supplements. Look for a probiotic supplement with numbered strains listed on the bottle. These numbers are essential to ensure the correct probiotic strain is used for therapeutic benefits and clinical efficacy. For example, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v has been shown to effectively reduce IBS symptoms, whereas administration of L. plantarum MF1298 can make IBS symptoms worse. It is a good idea to rotate the probiotic you are taking to include different strains so that you maintain microbiome diversity.

Audio Interview with Scott A. Johnson

Below is a downloadable interview (6 parts) between bestselling author Scott A. Johnson and Jessie Hawkins of the Franklin Institute.

 

 

 

 

Recharge and Rejuvenate with Forest Bathing

There’s something about being in nature that makes you feel better. Inhaling fresh clean air and the deep aroma of the forest, the recognizable melody of animals and plants of the forest, and the stunning beauty all around unite to ease stress and worry and help you think more clearly. Bathed in the proverbial forest, your mood is enhanced, body rejuvenated, spirit recharged, and energy and vitality restored.

What is forest bathing (forest therapy)?

A decades-old practice in Japan, forest bathing (or shinrin-yoku), literally means to bathe in the atmosphere of the forest using all of your basic senses—sight, touch, hearing, smell, and taste. It involves a profound connection with nature, bridging the gap between us and the natural world. Slowing down and immersing yourself in the natural environment has become an important part of preventative healthcare in Japan. Critics may ridicule this practice as nothing more than a stroll through a forest, but the growing body of evidence suggests that getting outside in nature is food for the mind, emotions, body, and spirit.

People who use essential oils are familiar with the terms terpenes and terpenoids. Inhaling these volatile organic compounds found in all essential oils provides a broad range of biological activities that support human health. Similarly, terpenes and terpenoids emitted by the trees of forests “bathe” us in beneficial volatile organic compounds when walking among nature. These compounds may reach their peak concentration during daylight hours, on clear calm days, from noon to the early afternoon, particularly in forest dominated by conifer trees. (1)

For such a simple health strategy, forest bathing provides huge benefits. Here are some of the benefits science has revealed so far.

Aid cardiovascular health

Your blood pressure is a major indicator of cardiovascular fitness. High blood pressure can damage arteries and increase the risk that they will clog, threatening both your health and quality of life. Japanese researchers studied the effects of walking in a forest on blood pressure. Middle-aged adults who walked in a forest for 90 minutes experienced reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as reduced stress. (2)

Another study tested the effects of forest bathing on middle-aged men with blood pressure on the high side of normal. The men strolled through the forest, practiced deep breathing, and were allowed periods of time to lie down in the forest. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as cortisol, all significantly decreased after forest bathing. Moreover, the participants reported improved mood and feeling more relaxed and natural. (3)

A third study evaluating elderly persons with high blood pressure showed that blood pressure was not lowered by forest therapy, but salivary cortisol levels significantly decreased. (4) Quality of life also improved. A reduction in salivary cortisol levels suggests the participants were less stressed. Cortisol plays a role in increased blood pressure. The reduction in cortisol and increased quality of life means that forest bathing may be useful as part of an overall high blood pressure management program.

The cardiovascular benefits of forest bathing aren’t just for the middle-aged or elderly though, research shows that young people can benefit as well. When comparing walking in a forest to urban walking among young adults, researchers found that nervous system activity was balanced towards relaxation, which relaxed the cardiovascular system. (5) Overall, this suggests that forest bathing may support cardiovascular longevity.

Benefits of forest bathing have even been observed in people with chronic heart failure. (6),(7),(8)

Improve emotional and mental health

Most anyone who has walked through a forest or even a fruit orchard can tell you that they felt more relaxed. Interestingly, researchers found that just viewing a kiwifruit orchard image can reduce stress. Middle-aged females were split into two groups. One group viewed a kiwifruit orchard image for 10 minutes while the other group viewed an urban building for the same amount of time. The group that viewed the fruit orchard image experienced increased parasympathetic nervous system activity (a sign of recovery and relaxation), a modest decrease in heart rate, and reported feeling more comfortable and relaxed as well as an improved mood state. (9) Maybe you should plaster your office or another room with nature pictures.

A larger study of almost 500 participants showed that forest bathing significantly reduced hostility, depression, and stress in people who were chronically stressed. (10) Interestingly, the more stressed a person was, the greater the benefits of the forest therapy. Similar findings were reported among people who had depressive tendencies when compared to those who did not. While both groups of people realized physiological and psychological benefits after a day-long session of forest bathing, people with depressive tendencies had more dramatic responses. (11) Mother Nature seems to recognize those who need her loving care the most and delivers extra benefits to them.

Remarkably, other researchers found that forest bathing improved mental health measurements in people being treated for a psychotic illness in in a psychiatric hospital. (12) Patients at the hospital were taking to a local forest covered mainly by conifer trees (Scots Pine, Norway Spruce) and some oak and common beech trees. They were encouraged to walk and participate in other exercises like stretching for 105 minutes. The greatest improvements were seen in confusion and depressive-dejection feelings and a significant decrease in anxiety was observed.

Even shorter walks of 15 minutes in nature can improve mental and emotional health. (13)

Relieve pain and reduce inflammation

Chronic pain can significantly reduce quality of life and take a toll on physical, mental, and emotional health. Adults aged 25 to 49 were taken to a forest filled with pine, oak, and maple trees for two days and participated in various indoor and outdoor activities. At the end of the two days, forest bathing improved both psychological and physical measures. The participants reported less pain and depression and a significant improvement in quality of life. (14) Amazingly, the forest therapy also improved their immune function as indicated by enhanced natural killer cell activity.

Exercising in the forest may provide greater benefits according to one study. The researchers compared the pain-relieving effects of forest bathing in comparison to forest bathing with exercise in people with chronic neck pain. People in the forest bathing with exercise group experienced greater neck pain relief than those in the forest bathing group alone. (15)

Another study found that two-hours of exposure to a forest reduced inflammatory cytokine levels in young adults. (16) Reduced inflammatory cytokines indicates forest bathing can reduce systemic inflammation. The forest intervention also increased antioxidant capacity.

Improve respiratory and immune function

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by difficulty breathing, cough, wheezing, and excess mucus production. Forest bathing significantly decreased proteins—perforin and granzyme B—released by natural killer cells that are involved in the progression and activity of COPD in elderly individuals with COPD. (17) The therapy also reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine and stress hormone levels and improved overall mood state. Based on the findings, the researchers concluded forest bathing has a positive health effect on elderly people with COPD.

Speaking of natural killer cells, these white blood cells play a major role in the fight against cancer and viruses. Adults who participated in three-day and 2-night forest bathing trips experienced increased natural killer cell activity that lasted for 30 days after completion of the trip. (18) Forest therapy also improved levels of proteins released by natural killer cells that attack viruses and cancerous cells. In contrast, a trip to the city had no effect of natural killer cell numbers or activity. Forest bathing appears to have long-term benefits on immune system function.

Three additional studies noted increased natural killer cell activity and levels of anti-cancer proteins in people of various ages after trips to a forest. (19),(20),(21) So, a monthly trip to the forest may protect you against infections and reduce your risk of cancer.

Conclusion

The existing research is clear. Humans have an intimate connection to nature and immersing yourself in a natural environment has huge human health benefits. If you need a mood reset, want to reduce stress, or improve your physical health, make every effort to inhale the health-promoting aroma of a forest at least once per month.

Three Natural Solutions to Halt a Cytokine Storm

The emergence of the novel SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the subsequent pandemic it has caused reignited discussions about a common complication of respiratory illnesses known as a cytokine storm. This phenomenon became more widely known outside of medical and research circles after the 2005 avian H5N1 influenza virus outbreak. Illnesses like COVID-19 and influenza can be fatal if a cytokine storm occurs. The scramble to find solutions for cytokine storms has increased since it was associated with a poor outcome after infection with SARS-CoV-2. As usual, Mother Nature has beat drug manufacturers to the punch and provided us tools to keep us healthy. Here are three natural solutions that can help halt a cytokine storm.

What is a cytokine storm?

Cytokines are proteins released by cells, including immune cells, involved in cell signaling. These chemical messengers coordinate the immune system’s response against infection and increase inflammation. Important pro-inflammatory (cause inflammation) cytokines involved in cytokine storms include tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6).

After infection by a pathogenic germ, your immune system activates troops—like white blood cells—and innate defenses to efficiently control the invader and maintain a healthy state. Sometimes the body’s response to infection overreacts and becomes harmful rather than helpful. When this occurs, activated white blood cells release excessive inflammatory cytokines in response to an invader, which in turn activates more white blood cells. This dangerous feedback loop makes the immune system go into overdrive and allows inflammation to flare out of control. If this cascade of events isn’t resolved quickly, the germ becomes more aggressive and causes severe illness. The subsequent inflammation damages tissues and organs, which can seriously harm or even kill a person.

Cytokine storms can partially explain why younger people are not as affected by COVID-19 and why people with preexisting conditions like diabetes, heart disease, and respiratory diseases are more likely to experience severe illness or die. Young people tend to produce lower levels of inflammatory cytokines and people with certain preexisting conditions have a decreased ability to regulate immune responses. Dysfunction of the immune system makes people more susceptible to an overactive immune response and the release of massive numbers of inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, research shows that older persons tend to have elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, which makes them more susceptible to experience a cytokine storm after certain infections.

Turmeric

Used for centuries for inflammation, turmeric and its active constituent curcumin, are a promising natural solution for cytokine storms. Curcumin blocks the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as the IL-1 family, IL-6, and TNF-α. (1) Experimental models of illnesses where cytokine storm plays a significant role in severity and mortality demonstrate that curcumin helps improve the subjects condition. It plays such a significant role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses that the study authors called it as “a potential therapy for patients with Ebola and other severe viral infections.” Another experimental model reported that turmeric reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines when taken after influenza A infection. (2) This shows that turmeric and curcumin can help regulate the immune response and control inflammation after infections.

Emerging clinical research supports the preliminary experimental trials. A clinical study found that taking 500 mg of curcumin twice daily reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine release in people with metabolic syndrome. (3) Another study demonstrated that taking 500 mg of curcumin three times a day decreased inflammatory cytokines in people suffering from chronic pulmonary complications. (4) These studies suggest that taking 500 mg of turmeric—standardized to curcumin content—two or three times daily may help control inflammatory cytokine release.

One of the challenges with turmeric is the poor bioavailability of curcumin. To overcome this, take turmeric with turmeric essential oil (7- to 10-fold higher bioavailability), fenugreek galactomannan (15.8 times greater bioavailability, or turmeric black pepper extract to increase absorption (2000% increase in bioavailability). (5),(6),(7) Most studies use 500 mg of turmeric two to four times daily.

Omega-3 fatty acids

Found in fish and red algae, the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are unique because they are precursors to the production of lipid-based inflammatory mediators called resolvins. Resolvins help resolve cytokine release without dampening the inflammatory response completely. This allows the immune system to continue its inflammatory assault against the germ but not overreact and cause tissue damage. (8)

Supplementation with 1.5 grams of EPA and 1.0 grams of DHA daily significantly reduced blood levels of inflammatory cytokines in older adults. (9) Several additional studies show supplementation with DHA and EPA reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (10),(11),(12)

A typical fish oil capsule contains about 180 mg of EPA and 120 mg of DHA. Some supplements are concentrated to provide 250 to 500 mg of EPA or DHA per capsule. These are far from therapeutic levels, so you need to take multiple capsules to get an optimum amount of DHA and EPA. Aim for at least 2000 mg of total DHA and EPA (for example 100 mg of DHA and 1000 mg of EPA) daily for maximum effects. Lower amounts are not likely to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production.

Copaiba essential oil

Derived from the oleoresin of Copaifera species trees, copaiba essential oil contains very high levels of the sesquiterpene and cannabinoid beta-caryophyllene. This bioactive constituent can directly bind to CB2 receptors in the immune system and regulate immunity and inflammation. Experimental models demonstrate that copaiba essential oil significantly reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and helps control the immune response to infections. (13),(14) Clinical studies for copaiba essential oil are sparse currently but anecdotal evidence from tens of thousands of people show that copaiba oil can reduce inflammation and support healthy immune and respiratory function.

Because of a lack of clinical research, the optimum amount of copaiba oil to take is a bit of a mystery. Commonly used amounts are one to two drops directly under the tongue up to three times daily or three to five drops in an empty vegetable capsule (fill the rest with olive oil) up to five times daily. Adding a drop of lavender, lemongrass, or fir (balsam of Siberian) to the capsule can augment the bioavailability and activity of copaiba oil.

Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The mentioned natural solutions are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Consult an integrative health professional before using the solutions.

Antiviral Essential Oils to Stay Healthy all Season

With growing concern over COVID-19 (Wuhan coronavirus 2019), many people are wondering which essential oils are antiviral and might help them stay healthy all season. Infectious illnesses, caused by a variety of pathogens, are more common during certain times of the year. While we don’t have research showing the direct activity of essential oils against COVID-19, researchers have discovered multiple essential oils have antiviral properties. This doesn’t mean we can use these oils to prevent or treat COVID-19, but does show many oils have demonstrated antiviral properties against a variety of viruses. Use of these essential oils may support the normal protective activities of your immune system.

Researcher shows the following essential oils are antiviral and the virus they were effective against: (1)

  • Ajowan (Japanese encephalitis virus)
  • Anise (herpes-simplex viruses type 1 and 2; HSV-1 and HSV-2)
  • Applemint (HSV-1)
  • Bay laurel (SARS-coronavirus)
  • Bergamot (Influenza virus A1/Denver/1/57 H1N1) (2)
  • Cajeput (HSV-1)
  • Cinnamon (Influenza virus A1/Denver/1/57 H1N1) (2)
  • Clove (murine norovirus)
  • Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus bicostata (Coxsakievirus B3 Nancy strain)
  • Eucalyptus, globulus (Influenza virus A1/Denver/1/57 H1N1) (2)
  • Geranium (Influenza virus A1/Denver/1/57 H1N1, Ross River virus) (2),(3)
  • German chamomile (HSV-1, HSV-2)
  • Ginger (caprine alphaherpesvirus 1) (4)
  • Grapefruit (hepatitis A virus) (5)
  • Kumquat fruit and leaf (avian influenza virus H5N1)
  • Lemon verbena (yellow fever virus; dengue fever virus)
  • Lemongrass (Influenza virus A1/Denver/1/57 H1N1; Ross River virus; HIV-1) (3),(6)
  • Manuka (HSV-1, HSV-2)
  • Mediterranean mandarin peel (avian influenza virus H5N1)
  • Melissa (herpes, avian influenza A virus H9N2)
  • Mugwort, great (HSV-1, HSV-2)
  • Oregano (yellow fever virus, murine norovirus, HSV-2) (7)
  • Oriental arborvitae, Platycladus orientalis (SARS coronavirus)
  • Peppermint (HSV-1, HSV-2)
  • Rosalina (HSV-1)
  • Rosemary (hepatitis A virus) (5)
  • Sandalwood, Santalum album (HSV-1)
  • Star anise (HSV-1)
  • Tea tree (influenza virus A/PR/8 H1N1)
  • Thyme (HSV-1; influenza virus A1/Denver/1/57 H1N1; HIV-1) (2),(6)
  • White verbena, Lippia alba (yellow fever virus, dengue fever virus)
  • Zataria (avian influenza A H9N2) (8)

Note: Most of the above were gathered from Medicinal Essential Oils: The Science and Practice of Evidence-Based Essential Oil Therapy. See this book for the references and more information.

Further research is needed to determine if these preclinical studies translate to humans. In the absence of clinical research to show how much of each oil to take and how to use them, savvy essential oil users know the best protection comes from using them three ways: aromatically, topically, and orally (for those that are labeled as dietary supplements, pure, and unadulterated).

Here are some general guidelines for using essential oils:

Aromatic: Add 2 to 4 drops of your chosen oils per 100 mL of water in your favorite diffuser. Diffuse in multiple rooms to keep your environment clean.

Topical: Apply 2 to 3 drops of oil in mixed in a carrier oil and rub on the upper chest and back or massage into the feet.

Oral: Take 1 or 2 drops directly under the tongue of milder oils a few times daily; or add 1 to 5 drops of essential oil in a capsule and take every 4 to 6 hours.

Essential oils work with your body through multiple pathways and mechanisms of action to help restore health. Using them responsibly and wisely will help you stay healthy all season and get back into your normal routine more quickly.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Seek appropriate medical advice if you have an illness of or medical condition. Consult an informed healthcare professional before using essential oils.