Reverse biological aging by naturally balancing cellular pathways

Billions of dollars are spent every year with one goal in mind — to maintain youth. Creams are applied, surgeries undergone, and extreme exercise or calorie restriction executed to maintain a youthful glow and youthful function. Knowing this, scientists have performed thousands of hours of research in search of the next miracle drug, molecule, or supplement to extend healthy human lifespan. Recent discoveries of cellular pathways — AMPK and mTOR — make this dream more of a reality.

What is AMPK?

Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important enzyme found inside every cell in the body. It serves as a master regulator of energy metabolism. AMPK detects energy levels (the number of ATP molecules) inside cells and controls responses when ATP levels are too high or too low. When activated, AMPK speeds metabolism, accelerates fat burning, and even influences how long you live.

Its activity level also closely regulates aging. The enzyme is most active in days of youth but its activity gradually decreases with each passing year. (1) This decreased activity is partially responsible for the buildup of visceral (belly) fat and muscle loss that occurs during the aging process. Excess weight, and the accumulation of fat around the waistline, accelerates aging. (2) Abdominal fat also generates an abundance of inflammatory chemicals. Indeed, deep abdominal fat transforms into an inflammation-promoting factory, leading to metabolic diseases. (3)

What happens when AMPK activity decreases?

Given that AMPK is the master cellular regulator of metabolism, it’s not surprising that a whole host of adverse effects can occur when its activity slows down.

  • Chronic inflammation
  • Increased visceral fat
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Accelerated aging
  • Dyslipidemia (high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides; low HDL)
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction
  • Poor blood glucose control

AMPK promotes cellular renewal and clean-up

Your cells continuously generate energy to remain viable. The process of energy creation produces toxic debris and metabolic waste that must be carefully managed by your body. Autophagy is the primary process cells use to clear damaged proteins and mitochondria, and other metabolic waste products. It is your cell’s internal housekeeping process.

The easiest way to think about this process is to consider fireplaces and a chimney sweep. Fireplaces are your cells. Inside these fireplaces, a series of oxidation reactions occur to convert food molecules into energy. As a result, the inside of the cell accumulates debris (like soot). The chimney sweep is autophagy, which cleans out the debris so the cell can operate more efficiently. Maintaining optimal autophagy is critical to cellular health and function.

Emerging scientific research suggests that autophagy is involved in virtually every intervention proven to extend healthy lifespan. (4) This discovery is a major advance in the quest to slow and reverse the aging process.

mTOR: AMPK’s partner in longevity

AMPK regulates autophagy and fat-removal partly by modulating a protein, and its partner in crime, called mTOR. mTOR stands for mechanistic target of rapamycin (an immunosuppressive drug that targets mTOR activity), and when properly balanced, triggers the breakdown of fat stores to produce cellular energy. (5) Indeed, scientists have discovered that mTOR functions as a central coordinator of metabolism and cellular growth in response to environmental and hormonal signals.

In essence, mTOR is the master conductor of your cellular symphony of processes. mTOR responds to stimuli such as amino acid levels, cellular energy status, oxygen level, and insulin growth factors. Its two complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2) serve as a communication hub that integrates cellular nutrient and stress statuses and then formulates an appropriate response.

Like AMPK, mTOR activity is directly associated with the aging process. Animal research demonstrates that decreasing mTOR activity extends lifespan. (5) Conversely, mTORC1 signaling activity is increased in a number of diseases, including cancer. (5) The discovery of mTOR’s involvement in aging and age-related diseases creates an exciting prospect to not only delay aging, but reduce the risk of age-related diseases like cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.

The role of exercise and eating in AMPK activation and mTOR regulation

Before we explore proven natural solutions to slow aging at the cellular level, it is important to emphasize the importance of regular exercise and eating better. It’s no revelation to those who live a healthy lifestyle that vigorous activity and reducing caloric intake are two well-established strategies to active AMPK activity and regulate mTOR. (6)(7) Calorie restriction triggers mechanisms that improve metabolism efficiency and protect against cellular damage. Many of the health benefits of exercise are linked to mTOR activity in muscle, brain, fat, and liver tissue. (8) Achieving optimal AMPK and mTOR activation is therefore critical for overall health and healthy lifespan.

Health really is a product of what you eat, how you move, environmental factors, and your thoughts and emotions. You simply can’t outpace the effects of poor eating, inactivity, or chronic stress. Nutrition and regular activity are foundational and the longevity results achieved with other natural measures will be amplified when they are properly established.

Natural methods to increase autophagy and AMPK activation and regulate mTOR

  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Jiaogulan). Dubbed the immortality herb for good reason, jiaogulan is prized for its ability to promote youthfulness and longevity. Its health benefits are often attributed to its effects on AMPK activity. Laboratory research demonstrates that GP potently increases AMPK activation almost seven-fold (660%). (9A)(9B)(9C) Remarkably, that is far greater than increases achieved with the diabetes drug metformin (1.3–1.6-fold increase) — metformin’s best-studied mechanism of action is through AMPK activation. (10) A randomized clinical study showed GP busts abdominal fat. Scientists observed an 11% reduction in visceral fat when individuals took 450 mg daily. (11)
  • Hesperidin. The citrus bioflavonoid hesperidin also significantly increases AMPK. Clinical research suggests that hesperidin benefits people with metabolic syndrome (high blood sugar, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, systemic inflammation, and excess abdominal fat). What scientists found was that hesperidin (400 mg to 500 mg daily) reduces systemic inflammation and abdominal fat. (12)(13)
  • Nicotinamide riboside. Preliminary research suggests that the NAD precursor nicotinamide riboside potently triggers autophagy, and improves mitochondrial function to extend lifespan. (14)(15) Typical doses are 100 mg daily.
  • Citrus bergamia (Bergamot) essential oil. Both bergamot essential oil and one of its primary constituents (limonene) stimulate autophagy according to laboratory research. (16)
  • Boswellia species (Frankincense), Pinus densiflora (Pine), and Pelargonium graveolens (Geranium) essential oil. Researchers discovered that three essential oils modulate the activity of the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. (17) Regulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway is likely best achieved through ingestion of the essential oils. Perhaps as few as 1-3 drops daily may be effective. This will need to be determined by clinical research.

Caution

Turning down mTOR and activating AMPK (and therefore autophagy) is not for everyone. Those with sarcopenia (degenerative loss of muscle tissue) or other frailty-associated conditions could experience aggravation of symptoms through chronically decreased mTOR and elevated autophagy. (18)

Conclusion

Emerging evidence surrounding the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway is an exciting cellular pathway to slow down the aging process and reduce age-related disease burden. Even more exciting is the possibility of influencing aging and age-related diseases with natural products. Don’t take your chances with expensive and risky surgeries to look and feel younger. Mother Nature prepared multiple solutions that you can give a try instead.

 

Ten essential oils to ignite passion and enhance intimacy

Looking to ignite passion and enhance intimacy? Lost enjoyment in sex or struggling with that illusive and mystical (some would say mythical) libido? No worries, essential oils may be just what the libido ordered. Throughout history, essential oils have been used to encourage cuddling, affection, and intimacy. This blog intends to explore ten oils that can enhance the passion in your bedroom and life.

Known as the sex drive, libido influences a person’s overall desire for sexual activity. Libido is a regulated by a complex interaction between hormones and neurotransmitters (chemical communicators of the brain like dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, GABA) released by the brain—specifically the limbic system and amygdala. Dopamine regulates desire, acetylcholine initiates arousal, GABA is necessary for orgasm, and serotonin is the final phase of libido called resolution.

To say that libido is all in your head is mostly accurate. Neurotransmitters released by the brain do the heavy lifting, governing a healthy libido. Estrogen is the primary hormone driving libido in women during the most fertile days. In menstruating females, libido peaks just prior to ovulation—a built-in motivation that encourages sexual intercourse during the most fertile days of the cycle and ensures the survival of the human race.

However, those revved-up days in the cycle virtually vanish as the production of key hormones—that are intimately connected to neurotransmitters—diminish during menopause. Indeed, hormones and neurotransmitters are interconnected in a complex dance (estrogen to serotonin, progesterone to GABA, and so forth) must maintain a specific rhythm throughout the life of a woman to sustain a healthy libido. The result of losing this rhythm and optimal production of both hormones and neurotransmitters is decreased libido, and reduced blood flow to the vagina, which causes vaginal dryness and decreased pleasure. Less pleasure, discomfort, and a decreased libido causes some women to experience a less fulfilling sex life during their mature years.

The male libido resides in the cerebral cortex and limbic areas of the brain and is fueled by neurotransmitters and testosterone. When a male becomes aroused, signals are sent from the cerebral cortex along nerves that elevate heart rate and increase blood flow to the genitals. Just like women, testosterone production changes over the course of a man’s lifetime. It usually peaks in his late teens and slowly declines thereafter. As a man ages, neurotransmitter, hormonal, and vascular changes make greater physical stimulation required to maintain sexual function and pleasure.

Keep in mind that although hormones and brain chemicals regulate libido, it is significantly influenced by emotions and stress levels. For example, you may be showering with the love of your life and feel desire, but arousal only occurs if you feel emotionally balanced and have stress under control. This may be why essential oils are so well-equipped to influence libido—because they profoundly influence mood and emotions by interacting with the same areas of the brain that regulate libido.

Ylang ylang is prized for its positive effects on blood pressure, stress levels, self-confidence, mood, and libido. Its flowers are traditionally placed on a couple’s bed on their wedding night. By relaxing both the mind and body, it places individuals in the right state for intimacy should the desire arise. In addition, its positive effects on blood pressure may increase blood flow to the genitals to make intercourse more enjoyable. How to use: Diffuse 7 to 10 drops in your diffuser 15 minutes prior to and during intimacy; or dilute and apply 1 to 2 drops over the heart.

Sandalwood is employed as a potent aphrodisiac in India. It too is calming to the mind and combats the negative emotions and stress that can interfere with intimacy. Interestingly, sandalwood reportedly smells similar to androsterone (a metabolite of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone), which may trigger subtle sensual signals to the opposite sex. How to use: Diffuse 7 to 10 drops in your diffuser 15 minutes prior to and during intimacy; or dilute and apply 1 drop to the side of the neck.

Patchouli essential oil is used in aromatherapy to reduce tension, stress, and anxiety. It has been used traditionally in Asian cultures as an aphrodisiac. Some experts believe that patchouli stimulates the sex glands to increase both libido and sexual responses. How to use: Diffuse 5 drops in your diffuser 15 minutes prior to and during intimacy, or dilute and apply to the lower abdomen.

Deeply relaxing and producing euphoric feelings, clary sage is a powerful aphrodisiac. It contains trace to small amounts of sclareol, which is a compound structurally similar to estrogen. It has a long history of use for balancing female energies and supporting normal hormone function in women. Clary sage also influences dopamine activity, which helps regulate sexual desire. How to use: Dilute and apply to the lower abdomen area and inside ankle area; or take 2 to 3 drops in an empty capsule and consume daily.

With an earthy aroma, vetiver essential oil is used in the traditions of Ayurveda to increase libido. It positively influences genes associated with both male and female hormone function. Its calming aroma reduces stress, which is vital for sexual health and enjoyment. Moreover, vetiver is known to increase GABA levels in the brain, which may enhance orgasm. How to use: Take 2 to 3 drops in a capsule daily.

Prized for its balancing effects to mood and uplifting aroma, bergamot is known to support optimal levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Optimal acetylcholine levels lead to enhanced sexual arousal. In addition, bergamot positively influences genes related to male and female hormone function. With less stress, improved mood, and optimum acetylcholine and hormone function, you can’t go wrong with bergamot during intimacy. How to use: Diffuse 7-10 in your diffuser 15 minutes prior to and during intimacy, or take 2 to 3 drops in a capsule daily.

Neroli essential oil is a great option for menopausal women according to clinical research. Women who inhaled a 0.5% dilution of neroli oil experienced improved sexual desire, quality of life, estrogen levels, cortisol levels, and menopausal symptoms. It has an alluring aroma that triggers desire in men and women both. How to use: Diffuse 5 drops in your diffuser 15 minutes prior to and during intimacy, or dilute and massage to the shoulders.

More than just a food spice, nutmeg essential oil is known for its psychoactive properties, including stress management and reduction of anxiety. It has also been traditionally used as an aphrodisiac and to improve sexual function. How to use: Diffuse 3 to 5 drops in your diffuser 15 minutes prior to and during intimacy.

Fennel has a licorice-like aroma that is relaxing and promotes self-confidence. Interestingly, fennel was used by the Egyptians to improve female libido and fennel decoctions were consumed by old men to improve virility anciently. How to use: Diffuse 5 drops in your diffuser 15 minutes prior to and during intimacy, or take 2 drops in an empty capsule the day of intimacy.

Several reports from women suggest that peppermint oil enhances sexual experience and orgasm. Peppermint increases focus, which is especially helpful for women who have trouble focusing during intimacy. The most common way it is used is by mixing 1 drop with about 7–10 mL of carrier oil and using it as a lubricant during intercourse. Other reports suggest applying it to the inner thighs is helpful.

Using two or more of the above essential oils together may amplify the benefits. Some find that combining three or more of the above oils into a roller bottle with carrier oil makes it easy to apply and readily available when the moment is right. Another frequent area to apply this type of blend is on the inner thighs.

Enhance intimacy and sensuality in the bedroom and your life with these tips. Used regularly, a night of passion with essential oils may become a more regular occurrence for you and your special someone.

Reference: Medicinal Essential Oils: The Science and Practice of Evidence-Based Essential Oil Therapy.

Surviving the 2018 flu season

The peak of the 2018 flu season is upon us with outbreaks being reported across North America. The influenza virus has hit every state in the continental United States and the media reports that Canadian emergency rooms are overcrowded with sick patients. A number of schools have canceled classes due to a rapid rise in flu-related absences. The flu shot has been a miserable failure, particularly since the mutated H3N2 strain that is spreading is difficult to prevent with the vaccine. And people are missing work, negatively affecting businesses. With the significant effects of the flu this year, some are wondering whether they should isolate themselves at home until the peak flu activity ends in April.

What is the flu and what are the symptoms?
Influenza is a contagious respiratory infection caused by a group of viruses known as influenza. There are four types of influenza viruses: A, B, C, and D. Influenza D primarily affects cattle and does not cause illness in humans. Human influenza A and B are responsible for the seasonal flu. Influenza C generally only causes mild respiratory symptoms and is not believed to cause seasonal epidemics.

Influenza A is further divided into different strains based on the presence of two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N). There are 18 different H subtypes and 11 different N subtypes. Influenza A also involves different strains due to virus mutation. H1N1 and H3N2 are two of the most common strains responsible for seasonal flu. They may be labeled according to the year they were most virulent, such as 2009 H1N1 Influenza.

The flu can cause mild to severe illness depending on the age and current state of health of the individual. It usually comes on suddenly and includes the following symptoms:
• Fever
• Chills
• Cough
• Headache and body aches
• Fatigue
• Sore throat
• Runny or stuffy noise

The role of the immune system
Whether or not you get the flu depends on the strength of your immune system. This is why the elderly, very young, and people with chronic medical conditions tend to be hit the hardest by the flu — both in incidence and severity.

The immune system is relatively immature at birth and has to adapt during life through exposure to multiple foreign challenges (viruses, bacteria, etc.). Babies produce their own antibodies each time they are exposed to a foreign challenge. Infants rely upon antibodies passed from their mother to protect them against germs for their first few months of life. Breastfed babies continue to receive a boost of disease-fighting antibodies through breast milk that is rich in cells that fight infection. By age one, their immune system has developed significantly but not fully. An immature immune system obviously increases the risk of influenza infections in infants.

The effects of aging on the immune system include a reduced production and diminished function of key immune cells. (1) In other words, the immune system detects and responds to foreign challenges more slowly with fewer cells performing this vital function. The body also heals more slowly in aged adults. As a result, elderly individuals experience a decline in immune function that makes them more susceptible to illness and a greater risk for complications.

Prevention strategies
Prevention is a far better strategy than treating the flu, especially if you are in the more vulnerable populations. Flu-related complications — such as pneumonia, sinus or ear infections, myocarditis (inflammation of the heart), and more — resulting in hospitalization and sometimes death are more likely in the elderly, very young, and chronically ill. Here are some tips to reduce your risk of infection:
Wash your hands with soap and warm water regularly. The flu virus is spread via contact with respiratory droplets. This contact can occur through direct contact with the virus or by contact with a surface the has the virus (like a door handle or shopping cart). Washing your hands frequently can reduce your risk of infection.
Eat real whole foods (not packaged, processed foods). Your body relies on a daily infusion of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients necessary for proper immune function. Inadequate supply of nutrients weakens your immune defenses and makes you more susceptible to illness. On the contrary, eating fresh fruits and veggies improves your immune defenses. (2)
Reduce sugar intake. Sugar depresses the activity of white blood cells, (3) which not only protect your body from viruses and germs but help prevent some medical conditions. Indeed, recent research suggests that drinking 1 liter (33.8 ounces) of sugary soda — or 100 grams of sugar — can disable the immune system for up to five hours. (4) Sugar also has a similar structure to vitamin C and competes with C, resulting in less vitamin C in white blood cells. Vitamin C is important for both the production and function of white blood cells.
Be physically active. Regular physical activity isn’t just good for your heart, body, and mind. Thirty minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity most days of the week may reduce the risk of respiratory infections. (5) Regular low to moderate activity also decreases flu-related mortality. (6)
Take a vitamin D supplement daily. Research has made it abundantly clear that vitamin D plays an important role in immune system regulation. (7) Experts concluded that about 41.6% of U.S. adults are deficient in vitamin D, with those of African American decent reaching 82.1%. (8) Individuals who are deficient can see up to a 50% reduction in influenza risk by taking vitamin D according to a 2011 study. (9) Ideally, people would have their vitamin D status determined by a blood test. However, in the absence of a test it is not unreasonable for elementary aged children to take 1,000 to 2,000 IU daily during flu season, and older teens and adults 2,000 to 5,000 IU daily.
Take probiotics daily. You may not realize it but about 70% of your immune system lies within your gut as the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, or GALT. (9) Probiotics play a vital role in the gut microbiome and therefore significantly impact immune function. A review of 13 randomized controlled trials concluded that probiotics reduced the number of people who experienced an acute upper respiratory-tract infection. (10) Another review that included 23 trials and 6,269 children determined that probiotic consumption reduced the incidence of respiratory tract infections in children. (11) Look for a multi-strain probiotic with at least 10 to 15 billion CFU and take one to two daily.
• Wear a mask if you choose. Although not very attractive, wearing a respiratory mask has proven significantly effective in reducing the risk of influenza. (12)

Natural solutions if you get the flu
Despite your best efforts, you may still get influenza. If this happens, a number of natural solutions exist to help speed your recovery.
Rest. Your body needs time to heal and recover, so take it easy. Stay home from work or school. Not only does this provide much needed rest but you reduce the spread of the virus.
Drink plenty of fluids. Water, herbal teas, and broth keep your respiratory system hydrated and thin mucus for expulsion. Don’t drink sodas, sugary sports-drinks, or other sugary beverages that will depress your immune system.
Take elderberry syrup. Preliminary research suggests that taking elderberry syrup reduces both the severity and duration of the influenza A and B. (13) Thousands of individuals can also attest to its effectiveness. As outlined in SuperCritical Essential Oils, typical doses are as follows: teens/adults: 10–15mL, 4 times daily for 5 days; children 1–6 years old: 5mL, twice daily for up to 5 days; children 7–12 years old: 5 mL, 4 times daily for 5 days.
Use essential oils. Teens and older adults can take a few drops of an immune-supporting blend with two drops of one or two SuperCarrier oils (balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, ginger, and ylang ylang) in a capsule up to three times daily. This will help support normal immune activity to identify and eliminate the virus. Be sure to diffuse a respiratory blend to support mucus expulsion and respiratory function as well. Younger children can have an immune-supporting blend rubbed onto their feet with carrier oil. Diffusing respiratory supportive oils is also helpful in children three and older. For more information on how to use essential oils see Surviving When Modern Medicine Fails, Evidence-Based Essential Oil Therapy, or Medicinal Essential Oils.
Take homeopathic Oscillococcinum. If you catch the flu within the first 12 hours — even better within the first two hours — then you may have success with Oscillococcinum. It is designed to reduce flu-like symptoms such as body aches, fever, chills, fatigue, and headache. Take as directed in the supplement box.

Conclusion
You don’t need to panic and sequester yourself until Spring. Take reasonable and appropriate measures to protect you and your family and life will continue without inviting the dreaded flu into your home.

Essential Oil Safety

Test your knowledge of essential oil safety based on research and evidence.

While essential oils are natural it doesn’t mean that they are inherently safe. Anything that has a therapeutic effect can also cause an unintended reaction. What determines whether you have a positive therapeutic result or unintended result is largely based on the exposure (dose and time) and method of use.

This short quiz is intended to help you discover a few of the reasonable cautions that should be followed to reduce the risk of an unintended result when using essential oils. To learn more and have a resource to guide you see one of Dr. Johnson’s books: http://authorscott.com/shop.

Which of the following essential oils contain enough 1,8-cineole to avoid use in children under the age of 3?

 
 
 
 
 

Which constituent in wintergreen is similar to aspirin making it important to avoid in children under age 12, particularly when feverish or sick with a viral illness?

 
 
 
 
 

Which of the following essential oils should be used cautiously or avoided when a person is taking an anticoagulant drug like warfarin?

 
 
 
 
 

This essential oil produces antidepressant effects via the monoamine oxidase (MAO) pathway, which suggests that it may interact with other antidepressants that work on the same MAO pathway.

 
 
 
 
 

Which of these essential oils has been shown in research to interact with antibiotics and antifungals?

 
 
 
 
 

What essential oil contains alantolactone, which is known to cause skin irritation when applied topically?

 
 
 
 
 

Which of these essential oils should be avoided or used very cautiously by people with epilepsy?

 
 
 
 
 

Which of these essential oils increases the risk of photosensitivity when applied topically and exposed to UV rays?

 
 
 
 
 

Which of the following essential oils may interact with caffeine?

 
 
 
 
 

Which book or books by Dr. Johnson contain(s) essential oils cautions and potential drug interactions?

 
 
 
 
 


Essential Oils Positively Influence Genetics

The decisions you make every day influence your personal health. Whether you decide to have that donut laden with trans fat and sugar or choose to run on the treadmill for 30 minutes ultimately affects your long-term health. The more good choices we make each day the better our health and the lower our risk for disease. But what if your decisions today affected not only your health but the health of your offspring for generations to come. As weird as this may sound, the field of epigenetics suggests this may be something we should consider as we make our daily choices.

What is Epigenetics?

Epigenetics is the study of potentially heritable (transmissible from parent to offspring) changes in gene expression that does not involve changes to DNA. Each of us has unique DNA contained in our cells ― unless you have an identical twin. Virtually every cell in our body contains all of our DNA and genes that make us who we are. Despite this similarity among most cells, difference cells perform different functions. Our brain cells act differently than our muscle cells, our skin cells perform different functions than our heart cells, and so forth. What differentiates their behavior is epigenetics. Epigenetics basically comprises the instruction aspect of our DNA that tells it what to turn on or off, up or down, and how and when to perform.

We inherit our genes from our parents and they cannot be changed. However, methyl groups (compounds made of carbon and hydrogen) are attached to genes that affect their expression ― whether genes are activated or deactivated (or turned up or down) to express a trait. The methyl groups are influenced in various ways, including eating, activity, and environmental exposures. So while epigenetics doesn’t alter our DNA, it does orchestrate what genes are expressed and when.

The exciting and emerging field of epigenetics continues to reveal how eating, activity, aging, disease state, and substances influence the human genome. Some experts believe that epigenetics will completely change the way we treat disease in the future.

How Essential Oils Influence Epigenetics

Landmark research, revealed that like other substances essential oils can influence the way our genes express. Through careful evaluation of billions of data points, it was discovered that essential oils fall into one of six zones of epigenetic influence: circulatory/respiratory, digestive/excretory, lymphatic/immune, muscular/reproductive, immune/nervous, and skeletal/integumentary. For example, helichrysum belongs to the skeletal/integumentary zone, orange to the muscular/reproductive zone, and myrtle to the circulatory/respiratory zone. By altering epigenetics, essential oils can profoundly influence the human genome and therfore human health.

To discover more about this exciting research read Synergy, It’s an Essential Oil Thing.

Hormones, Epigenetics, and Essential Oils

A woman’s hormones fluctuate each month during her fertility years and then alter again when her fertile years end. These fluctuations can lead to the uncomfortable symptoms of menstruation (cramps, minor mood changes, water retention, etc.) and menopause (hot flashes, vaginal dryness, etc.). Similarly, a man’s hormones (predominantly testosterone) tend to decline slowly after the age of 30, which can decrease performance and energy levels. Carefully balancing these hormones is key to healthy aging and well-being during our mature years.

Fortunately, this groundbreaking research revealed that certain essential oils play a role in overall hormone balance. While bioidentical hormones are an option for some women, an even better approach is to positively influence epigenetics in a way to improve the overall balance of all key hormones. The same can be said for males. Hormones are so tightly controlled within the body, that when one is deficient or excessive it cascades to the other hormones and soon you have a significant imbalance in multiple hormones. What the researchers found was that rosemary, lemon, vetiver, bergamot, clove, and tea tree essential oil positively affected the genes associated with female hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, and prolactin. For men, sweet basil, tea tree, bergamot, clove, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), and vetiver promoted positive expression of male hormones like testosterone. Knowing this allows us to create better balance of all hormones.

So the obvious question becomes how can we best utilize this research to promote normal hormone function in men and women? The following are essential oil formulas intended to do just that (added to a capsule for a systemic benefit):

Women: One drop each of rosemary, lemon, vetiver, bergamot, clove, and tea tree essential oils in a capsule morning and evening with food and water, six days per week.

Men:  One drop each of sweet basil, tea tree, bergamot, clove, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), and vetiver essential oils in a capsule morning and evening with food and water, six days per week.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The products mentioned are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Always consult with a healthcare professional.

 

Ingesting essential oils; Safe or harmful?

Certain topics have been avoided among friends throughout history because of their controversial nature. Religion and politics are among these divisive subjects. However, more recently other subjects have divided friends and family including car brands and sports teams. There are also divisive subjects among essential oil enthusiasts, including choice of essential oil brand and whether or not it is safe to ingest essential oils. Regarding the latter, you have an entrenched group of traditionalists that want to maintain the status quo and a growing group of progressives that advocate oral ingestion. Blog posts and articles on both sides  fuel the fire of this discordant debate. All of this leads to a great deal of confusion for the consumer who just wants to enjoy the benefits of essential oils.

So, with all the conflicting information and the drama associated with the topic of ingesting essential oils what is the average consumer supposed to do? The purpose of this article is not to add fuel to the debate, but to provide an evidence-based perspective based on current scientific research.

Misguided Convictions, Proper Training, and Control

First of all, I respectfully submit that some of the traditionalists are misguided in their convictions against essential oil ingestion. For some, it is a case of continuing to do what they’ve always done. Change is difficult. Humans, in general, don’t like change and prefer what they are familiar with. Others have only received training from an “approved” school that doesn’t teach ingestion methods. These aromatherapists have not received the proper training to teach the ingestion method and therefore are not qualified to do so. Another group just wants to maintain control of aromatherapy. If individuals are empowered with the correct information they can use essential oils safely without resorting to an appointment with a certified aromatherapist. I understand this completely. They want to protect their bread and butter — their revenue stream. I tend to prefer empowerment. A knowledgeable essential oil user, empowered with the right knowledge, can realize better health naturally and safely.

 

Oral Administration in the Scholarly Research 

I was recently invited to contribute a chapter along with my colleague and friend Dr. Joshua Plant  on essential oils to a forthcoming medical textbook Nutrition and Integrative Medicine: A Primer for CliniciansAs part of this chapter, I completed a literature review of clinical studies that administered essential oils orally. A significant range of doses was used in the dozens of clinical studies I located depending on the purpose and the essential oil used. Doses ranged from 50 mcL to 3 mL daily. These studies safely administered essential oils orally with few, if any, adverse events. It is clear that members of the scientific community accept the oral administration of essential oils and recognize it is a valuable administration method.

Examples of doses used in clinical studies or recommended in pharmacopeias:

  • Lavender (name brand Silexan): 80mg, once or twice daily <Multiple Clinical Studies> Note: Oral adminstration of 160mg of lavender increases serum linalool levels, but not linalyl acetate; with a half life of 4 hours after acute administratoin and 9 hours after 11 days of repeated oral ingestion.
  • Peppermint (name brand Colpermin): 0.2mL (187 mg), before each meal <Multiple Clinical Studies>
  • Rose: 5mg/kg body weight in children aged 3 to 13 years <Clinical Study>
  • Rosemary CT 1,8-cineole: 1mL, every 8 hours for 44 weeks <Clinical Study>
  • Anise: 200mg, three times daily <Clinical Study>
  • Eucalyptus: 100-200mg, 2 to 5 times daily <European Medicines Agency>

Our Body is Regularly Exposed to Essential Oil Constituents 

Another aspect of this debate is whether our body is used to processing the constituents found within essential oils. Here are some of the constituents are body commonly encounters and is used to processing:

  • Limonene is a common essential oil constituent and found in citrus fruits (including their juice), carrots, baked goods, beverages, chewing gum and more. Indeed, orange juice contains a number of volatile constituents, with limonene being the most abundant at 376 to 741 mcg/mL.(1)
  • Linalool is found in coriander, rosewood, and lavender essential oils to name a few, but it is also present in apricots, papayas, and cranberries. Linalool is the most abundant volatile constituent in papaya fruits.(2)
  • Alpha-terpineol is another alcohol present in several essential oils (distilled lime, neroli, clary sage, cajeput, palo santo, etc.), but also found in cranberry juice.(3)
  • Eugenol is an abundant compound of clove bud and other spicy essential oils but also found in common foods such as coffee, mung beans, peaches, and bananas. Eugenol gives coffee its woody aroma.(4)
  • Even methyl salicylate (the dominant compound of wintergreen and birch essential oils) is found in tomatoes, peaches, and bilberries.(5)
  • West Indian lemongrass, rosemary CT myrcene, juniper berry, and blue spruce all have myrcene present in good to significant levels. Myrcene is considered the major constituent responsible for the “green hop aroma” of beer.

It is abundantly clear that we are exposed to, and our body is used to, processing very small amounts of essential oil constituents. Indeed, as Supercritical Essential Oils reports, many of these compounds have demonstrated significant beneficial properties.

The Unconvincing Argument Against Ingestion

It is also interesting that Robert Tisserand is the most commonly cited expert by traditionalists to support their anti-ingestion stance. This is despite the fact that he has been quoted in more than one article that he is not against oral administration. He believes — as do I — that a greater level of knowledge is required to ingest essential oils. His book Essential Oil Safety even lists oral dosage recommendations (“Maximum adult daily oral dose”) for many essential oils.

Other groups opposed to the ingestion of essential oils share documents filled with adverse reactions allegedly caused by essential oils. Self-reported adverse reactions are hardly credible due to bias, untrained diagnoses, and lack of complete information (concomitant use of other supplements or drugs, the health status of the individual, etc.). In reality, these reports equal a statistically insignificant number of adverse events compared to the number of people who regularly ingest essential oils.

The Evidence-Based Conclusion

It is time for the traditionalists to embrace the future of essential oils and stop ignoring the ever-increasing evidence that essential oils are not only safe to ingest but provide a potential not attainable through inhalation and topical application in some cases. Long-established organizations should modify outdated policies and stances against this practice and encourage schools and certification programs to adapt their curriculum to teach the proper way to ingest essential oils. If you are looking for a program that already teaches these guidelines, I invite you to check out my comprehensive essential oil certification program.

For more information on other aspects of this debate, including empowerment vs. control, potential, knowledge, and comfort level, see my additional blog post here.


References

(1) Dagulo L, Danyluk MD, Spann TM, et al. Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing). Food Chem. 2010;75(2):C199-C207.

(2) Flath RA. Volatile components of papaya (Carica papaya L. Solo variety). J Agric Food Chem. 1977;25(1):103-9.

(3) Hirvi T, Honakanen E, Pyysalo T. The aroma of cranberries. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und Forschung. 1981 Sep;172:365-7.

(4) Hendon CH, Colonna-Dashwood L, Colonna-Dashwood M. The role of dissolved cations in coffee extraction. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62(21):4947-50.

(5) Stevens MA. Inheritance and flavor contribution of 2-isobutylthiazole, methyl salicylate and eugenol in tomatoes. J American Soc horticultural Sci. 1970;95:9-12.

Top 5 Scientifically Proven Benefits of Lavender Essential Oil

Lavender essential oil is considered the “Swiss Army Knife” of essential oils, and for good reason. It is one of the most well-researched and versatile essential oils with vast benefits and numerous properties. It has been used traditionally for its healing and relaxing properties. One of its most well-known uses is for burns, but it is also useful for stress management, relaxation, painful menstruation, and more. So what benefits has science revealed about this remarkable essential oil? Let’s explore the top five scientifically proven benefits of lavender essential oil.

  1. Relieves anxiety. Several clinical studies demonstrate that oral administration of lavender essential oil significantly reduces anxiety.
  2. Improves emotional balance and relieves depression. Clinical research shows that oral and topical administration of lavender essential oil positively modulates mood and reduces depressive symptoms.
  3. Alleviates pain. Inhalation or topical application of lavender essential oil alleviates painful conditions according to clinical evidence.
  4. Improves sleep quality. Inhalation of lavender essential oil increases deep sleep and reduces mild insomnia in humans.
  5. Kills cancer. Laboratory research suggests that lavender essential oil kills breast, metastatic prostate, lymphoblastic leukemia, lung (large cell), and colorectal cancer cells.

 


REFERENCES:

See Medicinal Essential Oils: The Science and Practice of Evidence-Based Essential Oil Therapy.

Eradicating H. pylori Naturally

One of the most successful pathogens in human history is the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacterium. It has manipulated cellular death pathways to ensure its survival and propagation, permitting it a prolonged existence and perpetual infections in humans. It is so successful that the CDC estimates nearly two-thirds of the human population has this bacteria living inside them.(1) While H. pylori has a long history of success and infection, it can be managed naturally with an evidence-based approach.

What is H. pylori

H. pylori (previously Campylobacter pylori) is a gram-negative bacterium that resides in the digestive tract and has a propensity for attacking the stomach lining — so much so it causes the majority of peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach and upper part of the intestine). H. pylori is transmitted by direct contact with the body fluids (saliva, fecal matter, or vomit) of an infected person. It is also contracted by drinking contaminated water. Good hygiene is essential to avoid its spread.

Signs and Symptoms of Infection

One of the problems with H. pylori is that the majority of people who are infected don’t exhibit any symptoms. However, if symptoms do occur they generally present as bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, belching, and vomiting. More serious infections may include diarrhea, dark or tarry stools, heartburn, peptic ulcers, loss of appetite, anemia (low red blood cell count), vomiting blood, and fatigue. It is also linked to an increased risk of gastric cancer depending on health status and other environmental factors.(10)

What is the Conventional Treatment for H. pylori

H. pylori is typically treated with “triple therapy.” This involves the simultaneous administration of two antibiotics to kill the bacteria with an acid reducer (esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole or pantoprazole). The acid reducer decreases stomach acidity to improve the action of the antibiotics. Side effects of triple therapy include diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, stomachache, headache, dark colored stools, vaginal itching/discharge, muscle weakness, mood changes, and yellowing of the skin or eyes.

Die-off Symptoms

Die-off (Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction) reaction is a term used to describe a reaction during the clearance of pathogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses, yeasts, etc.) from the body with antimicrobials. It is believed to occur when endotoxins produced by massive numbers of dying pathogens overwhelm the body’s ability to clear them out. This creates a toxic state that produces characteristic flu-like symptoms such as headache, fever, muscle aches, skin rashes, brain fog, and gastrointestinal problems (bloating, gas, diarrhea, and constipation). Die-off reactions usually occur when significant lifestyle changes are made: diet modification (switching from processed to whole foods — pathogens starve and die off rapidly), beginning probiotics (modifies the gut microbial balance to one with more good bacteria), or taking an antimicrobial substance (food, herb, supplement, or drug). This type of reaction will usually occur hours (1-2) to days (up to 10) after the lifestyle modification occurs.

The risk of die-off reactions may be reduced by backing off on the amount of the antimicrobial substance consumed, making a dietary change more gradually, or reducing the dosage of probiotics taken. In addition, a digestive enzyme (especially one with bromelain and proteases) may reduce reactions to whole foods added to the diet by facilitating better absorption of proteins and nutrients new to your body.

Eradicating H. pylori Naturally

  • Essential oils (2 drops each of clove, German chamomile, ginger, and lemongrass in a capsule, twice daily, one hour after a meal). Fortunately, scientists have revealed that a number of essential oils kill H. pylori — some at very low concentrations. Common essential oils that are effective against H. pylori include clove, German chamomile, ginger, and lemongrass.(2)(3)(4) Even more importantly, research suggests that some of the essential oils kill the bacterium without promoting resistance — a problem plaguing modern day antibiotics.
  • DGL (760 mg 20 minutes before each meal). This special form of licorice root has been relied upon for centuries to soothe stomach issues. It is very useful for ulcers and heartburn. One study concluded that the addition of DGL to triple therapy increased the elimination of H. pylori, particularly in people with peptic ulcers.(6) Another study demonstrated that licorice was as effective as bismuth (Pepto-Bismol) for H. pylori infections.(7)
  • Black cumin seed oil (1,000 mg after lunch and dinner). Black cumin seed oil and one of its active constituents thymoquinone are two of the most useful natural medicinals known. Scholarly research suggests that they are valuable for myriad health conditions and H. pylori is no exception. People administered 1,000 mg of BCSO (and 40 mg omeprazole), twice daily after meals, experienced reduced H. pylori counts comparable to triple therapy.(8)
  • Probiotics (15-50 billion CFU with evening meal). Results of clinical studies suggest that specific probiotics (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus GG, L. johnsonni La1, and L. reuteri) reduce H. pylori counts in the digestive tract, improve triple therapy eradication rate, or reduce the side effects of triple therapy.(9)

Conclusion

Chances are you are infected with H. pylori, even if you are symptom free. This infection could increase the risk of adverse reactions during lifestyle changes and puts you at greater risk for peptic ulcer and gastritis. Conventional triple therapy is not without side effects and may not be the most effective therapy to eliminate H. pylori. Natural options including essential oils, DGL, black cumin seed oil, and probiotics are promising natural remedies to control this common infection. Talk to your doctor about these natural, evidence-based options if you know, or suspect you have, and H. pylori infection.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The products mentioned are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Always consult with a healthcare professional.

Essential Oil Absorption and Distribution After Topical Application and Inhalation

Essential oils are known for their rapid results. They quickly enter tissues and cells to support healthy cellular and organ function. But just how quickly do they enter tissues after different administration methods?

Research into the distribution of essential oils after administration (topical, oral, and inhalation) is limited, but it is generally accepted that they are distributed similarly to fat-soluble drugs. Essential oils molecules do not distribute to organs throughout the body in the same quantities and ratios.(1) Instead, essential oils molecules will tend to distribute to fatty tissues (brain, nervous, and liver tissue) and move more slowly to adipose tissue, which has a reduced blood supply.

It is interesting that essential oils first seek to distribute to cells and tissues vital to life (nervous system and liver tissue). By doing so essential oils can profoundly influence health because the nervous system is the primary controller of myriad body functions.

The following is a brief overview of how quickly essential oils enter body tissues after topical application and inhalation.

TOPICAL

  • Essential oil compounds (lavender) are detected in the blood within 5 minutes of topical application.(2)
  • Widespread (peak blood concentration) at 19 minutes and reaching a minimum after 90 minutes.(2)

INHALATION

  • A significant portion of essential oil compounds distribute to the pulmonary system following inhalation.(3,4)
  • Inhalation of aroma compounds leads to detection in the blood within minutes, peaking at about 20 minutes.(5)
  • Research using brain topographical maps (EEG) demonstrates that essential oil molecules modify brainwave activity. However, how quickly molecules entered brain tissue was not reported.(6)
  • Animal research suggests that inhalation of aroma compounds leads to distribution in the brain tissue.(6)

So it is clear that essential oils are rapidly absorbed or distributed to tissues that are vital for optimum health. Regular use of essential oils (what I call an aromatic lifestyle) leads to cell, tissue, and organ support. This allows the whole person to thrive.

Students of the Mastering Essential Oils Certification course also have access to videos demonstrating essential oil absorption and distribution (for oral, topical, inhalation, and vaginal/rectal administration) via the included app.

 

Essential Oil Therapy Mobile App

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Amazing New Essential OIl App

New essential oil app empowers those who love essential oils to use them more safely and effectively! Get on iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/aromatic-database/id1114709857?mt=8(Please note: A glitch is currently being investigated in the subscription process (subscribe button not working). This statement will be updated when this is corrected.) Get on Google Play: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ebeor.app&hl=enLearn more: http://authorscott.com/essential-oil-therapy-mobile-appJust as an FYI: I subscribe to a similar app for herbs and dietary supplements and pay $159 annually for the subscription.**Sorry, had technical difficulties with the live stream, but here is a recording.**

Posted by Scott A. Johnson on Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Evidence-Based Essential Oil Resource app is an authoritative resource on the clinical use of essential oils that includes information for over 100 botanical species of essential oils. The intent of the database is for professionals and laypersons to evaluate the evidence in support of essential oils for specific aspects of human health according to the strength of the available evidence. In addition, drug interactions, contraindications, and safety information is shared for each essential oil. For best results, this database should be used in conjunction with the book Evidence-Based Essential Oil Therapy, which contains comprehensive information regarding the safe and effective use of essential oils. This book provides the insight and evidence necessary for one to use essential oils as part of an integrative approach to medicine, including safety information, dosing, administration methods, and known drug interactions and cautions.
The Evidence-Based Essential Oil Resource database features:

  • brief descriptions of over 100 botanical species of plants and their native habitats;
  • short accounts of the historical use of over 100 botanicals, including traditional medicinal and folk-remedy use;
  • common names and botanical synonyms of plants;
  • efficacy ratings of essential oils (from one oil drop to five oil drops, with five being the highest) based on an in-depth, methodical review of the scientific evidence for more than 100 botanical species of essential oils;
  • drug interactions, contraindications, cautions, and safety information for each essential oil;
  • and links to the supportive research used to determine the essential oil’s rating and safety.

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Download the resource every serious essential oil user and clinician should have today!

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